Personalized nutrition and nutritional genomics are globally becoming important areas of interest that should complement the knowledge and applications in order to benefit not only individualized wellbeing issues but also to fulfill public health demands. The accessibility to modern technologies, the availability of recognized and new biomarkers based on genome and other omics data and the understanding of genotype information are three relevant tasks that have been developed and investigated in personalized nutrition frameworks.
In turn, nutritional genomics is a science that involves several “omics” approaches (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, foodomics, lipidomics, metagenomics, etc.) to explain how food/ nutrients and genes interact and are expressed to reveal individual phenotype differences, including health or disease condition. It also includes research in nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics nutriepigenetics, and systems biology. Furthermore, nutritional genomics can contribute to personalized nutrition, in order to discover reliable biomarkers of dietary response or to achieve individual requirements.
Interindividual differences in disease susceptibility depend not only on the DNA sequence (e.g. SNPs) but also on epigenetic factors affecting gene expression such as DNA methylation, covalent histone modifications, chromatin folding and the regulatory actions of miRNA. From a epigenetics perspective, the identification of those individuals that an early age could present changes in the methylation profiles of specific genes could help to predict their susceptibility to later develop obesity and related‐comorbidities in later life, which may allow to prevent and follow‐up its progress, as well as to research and develop newer preventive and therapeutic approaches. In addition, the recent description of protocols for tailored dietary treatments based on algorithms are facilitating their possible applications in precision nutrition.
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